Types of Oscillation

Depending upon the external forces and quantities related to oscillation like time period, amplitude, etc, the oscillation can be categorized into three types.

They are:

  • Damped Oscillation
  • Free Oscillation
  • Forced Oscillation

Damped Oscillation

The type of oscillation where the amplitude and energy of oscillating particles gradually decrease with time is called damped oscillation. Due to dissipative forces like friction, the energy is reduced and finally, the particle comes to rest.

In this type of oscillation, giving suitable external energy, particles can be made to oscillate with constant amplitude.

for. eg oscillation of a simple pendulum in the earth without external energy.

Free Oscillation

Suppose a pendulum is taken into space where there is no any external force, the pendulum will oscillate forever with constant amplitude and energy. Such oscillation is an example of free oscillation.

The oscillation in the absence of any external force is called free oscillation. When a body that can oscillate is displaced from a mean position and released, it begins to oscillate with constant amplitude in the absence of any dissipative force. The frequency of vibration in free oscillation is called natural frequency.

e.g oscillation of pendulum in space, oscillation without external force.

Forced Oscillation

In damped oscillation, the energy lost by a particle in an oscillation can be compensated by supplying external energy which makes the oscillation continue in constant amplitude. Such oscillation is called forced oscillation.

When the frequency supplied by external force becomes equal to the particle’s natural frequency, the phenomena of resonance happens.

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