We use computational method to perform many calculations. That means we use programming language (or certain code) to solve almost all type of complex problems. Why this?
One of the reasons behind this is: code can iterate over and over again according to our needs. I mean we can perform the same process so many times just by writing a single line of code. Cool, right?
This process of repeating the same task is done by loop and it’s the best feature of any programming language out there. Different languages have different ways of writing loop. In FORTRAN, we write a loop code using a
There are many things that one can achieve using
DO loop. For a simple example, one can print out 100 same statements just writing that statement only one time. You will get so many examples as you go down. So let’s start learning Fortran DO LOOP.
If you haven’t gone through previous lessons then I suggest you to go through that using this LINK.
FORTRAN DO STATEMENT syntax
Ok, let’s see the syntax of DO STATEMENT
do integer_variable = start, stop, [step] statements..... ............... end do
let’s see one simple example to see DO STATEMENT in action. Just copy or write the code below and run to see the output.
program example implicit none integer :: i do i = 1, 10 print*, i end do end program
Its output is:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
So let’s see what’s happening in the code.
If you see highlighted code, you can see one print statement but we are getting 10 lines in the output (i.e from 1 to 10). This is because that print statement is wrapped inside DO and END DO statement which is telling to run that same code 10 times. How? Let’s learn step by step.
While writing DO STATEMENT, first we need one variable of the integer data type then we need a start and stop point (optional step) number for that integer. (see the syntax above)
When we write
do i = 1, 10 that means
i integer will hold value from 1 to 10 at each iteration( repition). So print*, i statement is executed 10 times but every time it executes,
i value changes from 1 to 10 printing out 1 to 10 as output.
Now let’s write another code with new integer variable and with step part also.
program another implicit none integer :: num do num = 5, 20, 3 print*, num, 2*num end do end program
The output is:
5 10 8 16 11 22 14 28 17 34 20 40
This time, integer variable is
num and it ranges from 5 to 20 but with the step of 3. So
num value starts with 5 and changes by 3 unit until it reaches 20. Therefore,
num value will be, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17 and 20.
print*, num, 2*num statement prints out
num value and two times of
num value until
num value exceeds 20.
Now let’s not do any calculation but execute same statement about 6 times.
program new implicit none integer :: x do x = 5, 11 print*, 'hello' print*, 'hi' end do end program
See the Output:
hello hi hello hi hello hi hello hi hello hi hello hi
x value is from 5 to 11 that means 6 times. So the two
PRINT STATEMENTS inside
DO loop is executed 6 times printing out 12 lines in the output. You can change
x value range as your choice but just be sure that you provide the right calculated number for the required number of repetitions.
Examples of DO Loop in FORTRAN
Fortran Program to find sum of natural number
1. Write a program to calculate the sum of natural number.
program total implicit none integer :: sum, i sum = 0 do i = 1, 10 sum = sum + i end do print*, sum end program
The output is:
If you see the highlighted line, that’s the main calculation statement which is going to repeat 10 times. First, we set
sum = 0 then we do s
um = sum + i that means we add i to sum. But i value changes from 1 to 10 on each repition, so that we can add every numbers from 1 to 10 using 10 repitions.
Now, try to add code so that the user has to enter the number up to which, the sum to be calculated of.
Fortran Program to find a factor of any number
2. Write a program to calculate the factor of any number.
program factor implicit none integer :: x integer :: fact fact = 1 do x = 1, 5 fact = fact * x end do print*, fact end program
The output is:
This factor program is similar to above program of finding a sum but only difference is that for the sum we set 0 at first but for the factor we set 1 at first. Do you know why? Find.
General Do Loop
There is one more way of writing a loop in FORTRAN and that is general DO LOOP. So what’s the difference between the previous one and this one?
The only difference is this general DO LOOP doesn’t need starting and ending point. So it’s better use is for infinite loop.
let’s see one example
program infinite implicit none integer :: i = 0 do print*, i print*, i + 1 end do end program
This program prints out the numbers starting from 0 and never ends. This might create a problem in system. To stop this program, press
Ctrl+C and the execution stops.
There are other ways to stop the infinite loop using loop control elements which are to be discussed in next tutorial.
We can use GOTO statement instead of general DO loop if we not sure when to stop the loop. And remember try to avoid this general DO LOOP as we have other good ways too for the loop.
Conclusion and Summary
This DO LOOP is the best way to perform repetitions and is always used to solve physics and various other problems. But before you go, remember these key notes:
- You have to declare one integer variable to write loop code.
- Try to avoid infinite loop as possible.
- First try loop for few repetitions and then add stopping point for more repetitions.
If you feel okay with this lesson of FORTRAN DO LOOP, go to the next lesson, but if you are not confident enough, then I suggest you watch the video for visual details.