Angular Momentum Definition
A body possessing linear velocity has linear momentum. In the same way, a rotational body has rotational momentum called angular momentum.
Angular momentum is the moment of linear momentum. It defines the quantity of motion of rigid rotational bodies. Angular momentum is defined as the vector product( or cross product) of distance from the axis of rotation with the linear momentum. It is denoted by
In Vector form, It is written as
where is a unit vector along the direction of and is the angle between and
Consider a rigid body rotating with uniform angular velocity ‘‘ and one particle of mass .
Angular momentum of that particle =
But and So, angular momentum becomes
If there are ‘n’ particles in a rigid body, the total angular momentum can be calculated by adding the angular momentum of all particles. So, Total angular momentum can be written as:
Where is defined as moment of inertia of rigid body.
Differentiating with respect to time, we get:
Hence, the rate of change of angular momentum is called torque.
Conservation of Angular Momentum
Conservation of Angular Momentum states that “If no external torque is acted on the system, the total angular momentum always remains constant.”
i.e. If then, = constant
Differentiating with respect to t we get:
= constant I = constant
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